Ammunition

Stockpiled ammunition can become unsafe if not properly stored. Unintended explosions of ammunition depots have affected over 100 countries worldwide, leading to thousands of casualties over the past 15 years. Moreover, when depots are not well managed, they form an unremitting source for diversion of ammunition to armed groups and criminals, thus sustaining conflict and armed criminal activity.
Through the UN SaferGuard programme, the UN works on improving whole-life management of ammunition, thus providing people more safety and more security.

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Assistance, implementation

The UN SaferGuard programme oversees the dissemination and application of International Ammunition Technical Guidelines (IATG):
detailed standards to improve the safety and security of ammunition storage sites. IATG come at basic, intermediate and advanced levels. UN SaferGuard IATG modules

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Toolkit

12 practical tools — all IATG-compliant — to assist in adequate ammunition management.

International Ammunition Technical Guidelines

International Ammunition Technical Guidelines

Effective ammunition stockpile management needs a ‘whole-life management’ approach, ranging from categorization and accounting, to physical security, to surveillance, to recurrently assessing the stability and reliability of ammunition. The International
Ammunition Technical Guidelines (IATG) form the foundation of the UN SaferGuard Programme. Users of these guidelines opt for basic, intermediate, or advanced level advice, making IATG guidance relevant for all situations.

Go to IATG

Risk reduction checklist

Risk reduction checklist

Within the IATG, the tasks and activities necessary for safe, efficient and effective stockpile management equate to one of three risk levels. These are indicated within each IATG as either LEVEL 1, LEVEL 2 or LEVEL 3, dependent on the degree of complexity of each task or activity.
Determine the Risk Reduction Process Level(RRPL) for a stockpile by answering the questions below, then clicking on the “Estimate Risk” button at the bottom of the page.

Estimate risk

Quantity-distance map

Quantity-distance map

Displays the quantity distance for explosives in hazard division 1.1

Redraw quantity-distance

Vertical danger area

Vertical danger area

This calculator is used to determine the vertical danger area about which it necessary to warn air traffic of detonations taking place on the ground. This warning may be published through a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) filed with aviation authorities.

Calculate

Explosive limit licence generator

Explosive limit licence generator

The storage of military explosives presents inherent risks to nearby persons and property. One of the most efficient means of reducing risk and thereby contributing towards protecting the public from the effects of an explosive event is by the use of separation distances.

Create

Explosion Consequence Analysis

Explosion Consequence Analysis

An Explosion Consequence Analysis (ECA) is a structured process, utilizing explosives science and explosives engineering, to provide scientific evidence of the potential hazard or risk to individuals and property from blast effects and fragmentation in the event of an undesirable explosive event.

Calculate

Noise of a detonation

Noise of a detonation

This calculator can be used to predict the distance from a detonation at which 140 decibels (dB) could be expected to be achieved. The 140dB level is widely used as a “safety cutoff” for exposure to impulsive noises while using hearing protection.

Calculate noise range

Explosion Danger Area

Explosion Danger Area

This calculator can be used to estimate range danger areas when planning the destruction of ammunition by open detonation. It may be used for ‘quick planning’ on demolition ranges with existing danger areas.

Calculate

Kingery-Bulmash Blast Parameter Calculator

Kingery-Bulmash Blast Parameter Calculator

Equations to estimate blast over-pressure at range have been developed by Charles Kingery and Gerald Bulmash. These equations are widely accepted as authoritative engineering predictions for determining free-field pressures and loads on structures. The equations in this calculator are based on data from explosive tests using charge weights from less than 1kg to over 400,000kg.

This calculator is based on the Kingery-Bulmash equations used to model a hemispheric, surface explosion, and should not be used for applications requiring the calculation of values for a spherical burst in the air.

Calculate blast parameters

Gurney Equations for Fragment Velocity

Gurney Equations for Fragment Velocity

The Gurney Equations are a range of formulae used in explosives engineering to predict how fast an explosive will accelerate a surrounding layer of metal or other material when the explosive detonates. This determines how fast fragments are released on detonation of an item of ammunition. This initial fragment velocity can then be used with other ballistic equations to predict either danger areas or fragment penetration.

Calculate fragment velocity

Hopkinson-Cranz Scaling Law

Hopkinson-Cranz Scaling Law

Many States use rules based upon the explosives, their quantity, and the distance from the explosive to where people are at risk. These rules are known as Quantity-Distance (Q-D) criteria, and are based on the approach derived from the Hopkinson-Cranz Scaling Law, which is further amended by a range of coefficients. It is the basis of much of the work on the estimation of appropriate quantity and separation distances.

Calculate range

Detonation Pressure Calculation

Detonation Pressure Calculation

The Detonation Pressure of an explosive provides an indicator of its ability to do work and determines whether it is a high brisance or low brisance explosive.

Calculate pressure